Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heart condition characterized by an irregular and rapid heartbeat that hampers blood supply to the body. In atrial fibrillation, the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart lack coordination, causing a rapid and irregular heart rhythm. People with atrial fibrillation may experience palpitations, shortness of breath, and fatigue or lack of energy.
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease (CAD) usually occurs when cholesterol and plaque accumulate inside the coronary arteries (blood vessels supplying oxygen-rich blood to heart muscles) and block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The plaque can sometimes break off and form a blood clot that can completely block the vessels, leading to permanent heart damage.
Chest pain can present as a sharp, stabbing pain or a dull ache accompanied by discomfort in your chest. It is not a disease, but a symptom of an underlying heart problem like coronary heart disease. The degree of chest pain depends on the intensity, duration and person.The chest pain caused by heart-related issues can be life-threatening.
Pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage of an artery in the lung. The blockage is due to a blood clot in the pulmonary artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. Pulmonary embolism is considered a potentially life-threatening and serious condition requiring immediate medical intervention. The seriousness of the condition varies with the size of the blood clot.
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the arterial wall of the blood vessels is thickened and narrowed due to the deposition of fat or cholesterol forming a plaque. The rupture of plaque leads to formation of clots in the blood vessel. These plaques and clots can restrict blood flow to the organs; especially the heart. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases.
High Blood Pressure
Blood pressure (BP) or hypertension is the pressure exerted by blood against the artery walls each time the heartbeats. It is measured as systolic and diastolic pressures, i.e. blood pressure when the heartbeats, and blood pressure in between beats, when the heart is at rest. Normal BP is ≤120 (systolic blood pressure)/80 (diastolic blood pressure) mmHg. High blood pressure is a condition that occurs when the pressure of blood in the blood vessels is ≥140/90 mmHg.
Hypercholesterolemia is a health condition characterized by higher than normal levels of lipids, especially cholesterol, in your body. Lipids are a special type of naturally occurring molecule with high solubility in organic (nonpolar) solvents and low solubility in water. The major lipids present in your body are triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids.
Angina (Chest Pain)
Angina pectoris or angina, also known as ischemic chest pain, is a type of chest pain or chest discomfort that occurs as a result of decreased blood flow to the heart. Angina pectoris is usually a sign of an underlying heart condition and is often triggered by emotional stress or physical activity. It is most commonly manifested by sensations of squeezing, tightness, heaviness, pressure, or pain in your chest.
Heart Failure is a condition where the heart fails to pump blood in order to maintain the metabolic needs of the body. In most cases, heart failure is a chronic, long-standing and on-going condition, but it can develop suddenly. A person may experience heart failure because of structural changes in the walls of the heart chambers or improper functioning of valves.
Thromboembolism is a condition in which a blood clot formed inside a blood vessel breaks free and is carried in the bloodstream to block a blood vessel inside another organ, causing organ damage. The affected organs can be lungs (pulmonary embolism), brain (stroke), gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, or legs.
Two diseases typical to thromboembolism include DVT or deep vein thrombosis (blood clot in a deep vein) and PE (pulmonary embolism). These conditions may develop as a result of complications of cancer-related surgery.
Endocarditis is a serious medical condition in which the heart’s innermost lining, the endocardium, becomes inflamed. If it is not treated quickly, the heart valves and muscles may be severely damaged. People with damaged or artificial heart valves or other heart defects have a high risk of developing endocarditis.
Cardiogenic shock is a serious medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart attack, severe heart valve problems, or severe heart muscle damage. Symptoms of cardiogenic shock include low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and confusion. Treatment for cardiogenic shock typically includes supportive care in a hospital setting, such as oxygen therapy, fluid and electrolyte replacement, and medications to support blood pressure and heart function.
Cardiomyopathy is a heart disorder that weakens your heart muscle leading to inefficient pumping of the blood to the rest of your body.
Aortic aneurysm is a condition characterized by an abnormal bulging of a section of the large blood vessel called the aorta. The aorta is the major blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the different parts of the body.
Peripheral Artery Disease
Peripheral arterial disease, also known as peripheral vascular disease, is a common vascular condition in which blood supply to the limbs is reduced due to the narrowing of arteries.